Vajrayana introduced the theory of the five Dhyani Buddhas as embodiments of the five cosmic elements– ether, water, earth, fire and air and formulated the theory of the family of the five Dhyani Buddhas from which deities emanate according to need. The cult of the Dhyani Buddhas, who are assigned definite positions in the cosmogony of the stupa is quite popular in Nepal and may have been introduced from India as early as the 7th century A.D. The immense popularity of this cult can easily be seen and the hundreds of votive chaityas in and around the Valley. Of the five Dhyani Buddhas the senior, in Nepali hierarchy, is Vairochana (ether) who occupies the center of a Mandala but is not represented in the roadside votives which depict only the other four Dhyani Buddhas, Akshobhya (water) of the East, Ratna-Sambhava (earth) of the South, Amitabha (fire) of the West and Amoghsiddhi of the North. In the Swayambhu stupa, Vairochana is placed between Akshobhya and Ratna-Sambhava.
5. Ratnasambhava Buddha
Ratna Sambhava Buddha (Buddha born from Jewel) is one of the Pancha Dhyani Buddhas symbolizing wisdom of equality (Samata gyana).Ratna Sambhava Buddha is yellow in colour. Ratna Sambhava Buddha belongs to the Buddha family of Jewel or boon, therefore, his posture is like boon giving known as Varada Mudra with his right hand. Ratna Sambhava Buddha holds Cintamani jewel in his left hand kept on his lap. Ratna Sambhava Buddha is placed in the stupa facing to the South. Ratna Sambhava Buddha also represents the purified form of defilement pride. Ratna Sambhava Buddha rides on the horse throne symbolizing that he ferries over the suffering sentient beings with full vigour. He resides in the pure abode of Ratnavati heaven. The female consort of Ratna Sambhava is Mamaki who is gifted with the sense of smelling of Nose and is all illuminating and loved by all.